In December 2020, a group of ex-professional and semi-professional rugby players – including World Cup-winning Steve Thompson, former Wales captain Ryan Jones and former All Blacks prop Carl Hayman – sent a pre-action letter to World Rugby, the Rugby Football Union and Welsh Rugby Union, suing them for failing to take protective action against the risks caused by concussion [Ref: BBC Sport]. Two years later and the case is destined to go to the courts, a settlement having not been reached [Ref: Guardian]. It is the first legal move of its kind in world rugby, with some comparing it to the class action against the NFL in 2011, where 20,000 retired players accused the league of not warning about, and hiding, brain injuries associated with the sport [Ref: NFL Concussion Settlement].
Many of the over 180 players who have come forward so far have been diagnosed with early-onset dementia and probable chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease or motor neurone disease. CTE was the disease discovered post-mortem by Dr Bennet Omalu in American football player Mike Webster [Ref: BBC Sport]. The disease gained public attention following the 2012 suicide of NFL player Junior Seau, who was posthumously found to be a sufferer of the disease [Ref: NPR].
These concussion controversies are not just restricted to rugby and American football. In fact, the firm that is carrying out the legal action for the rugby players, Rylands Law, has also confirmed that it is bringing a claim on behalf of the families of 40 former professional footballers with early-onset dementia [Ref: Guardian]. Dr Willie Stewart, a consultant neurologist, revealed that ‘footballers were three-and-a-half times more likely to die of neurodegenerative disease than age-matched members of the general population’ [Ref: Guardian]. Cricket has sparked a debate about the removal of aggressive moves, such as the bouncer, where recently 22-year-old Australian Will Pucovski was hit on the head during a warm-up match leading to his ninth concussion at such a young age [Ref: Telegraph].
These instances and others have brought the issue of sports safety to the fore, with many now questioning the legitimacy, and even humanity, of contact sports at the professional, amateur and youth level [Ref: Guardian]. Critics argue that the rules and culture of contact sports must change to protect athletes from their desire to win at all costs; ultimately, sport must change to put safety first [Ref: Conversation]. Yet others, including many sportspeople, disagree. Should we trust athletes to understand the consequences of contact sports and make a rational choice to take a risk for their love of the game? Or is it necessary that we protect athletes from themselves?
DEBATE IN CONTEXT
Taking a risk
CTE, colloquially known as ‘punch drunk’ due to the disease’s association with boxing, is a progressive degenerative illness found in people who have had a severe blow or repeated blows to the head. In its minor forms, symptoms include dizziness and headaches; in more severe forms, it can mean erratic behaviour, memory loss and dementia [Ref: Wikipedia]. Scientific research continues to bring to light the association between CTE and contact sports such as American football, rugby, boxing and mixed martial arts [Ref: Economist], with new evidence suggesting that women are twice as likely as to get concussed as men, with the effects being more severe [Ref: BBC].
In December 2020, an open letter signed by a group of academics called for a ban on tackling for school rugby games due to the concerns ‘about the potential impact on young, developing brains of repeated concussive blows’ [Ref: BBC Sport], after similar letters in 2016 and 2017, to ‘ensure the maximum possible safety for children’.
Likewise, calls for children under the age of 16 to be banned from heading in football have recently gained momentum, backed up by the wife of Nobby Stiles, the former England international football player who passed away in October 2020 suffering from dementia [Ref: Evening Standard]. Steps have been taken since, with the FA announcing a trial to ‘remove deliberate heading’ at U12 level for the 2022-23 season, with plans to remove heading from the U12 level and below in the 2023-24 if the trial is a success [Ref: The FA].
Many commentators have since called for authorities to take urgent action to combat brain injuries, including reducing contact-training sessions, improving concussion protocols, using safer tackling techniques, and even removing unsafe elements of sport not just for children but at the elite level as well [Ref: BBC Sport].
Nevertheless, some critics are adamant that despite rule changes, improved technology and ‘smarter’ coaching, sports like American football can never really be safe. One sportswriter commented: ‘No matter how you play football, head injuries are inevitable… [and] at some point, we might have to acknowledge the only way to play smarter football is to not play it at all’. [Ref: Guardian]
But those defending contact sports, such as severely injured former rugby union player Alex Bennet, insist that the game has given more to him than it has ever taken away [Ref: Telegraph]. He states that the game has moved on massively since he started playing, with there being much more information on how to safely coach and manage players. Other sport stars, such as legendary NFL cornerback Richard Sherman, argue that professional athletes are now fully educated on the risks, and make an informed choice to continue playing the game they love [Ref: MMQB]. In this view, if you make the decision to play in any elite sport, there is a high possibility that you may get the odd broken bone, or even a serious injury, but concerns over player safety should not destroy the game as a result. Similarly, others observe that a cultural aversion to risk-taking is being enforced on sports we have known are dangerous since their inception, and athletes and children should be both free to, and at times encouraged, to take risks [Ref: Guardian].
Winning at all costs?
Some commentators argue that not only do rules of sport need to be changed but also the culture within it [Ref: The Conversation]. The relentless drive to win at all cost leads players to believe that they have no choice but to play through injuries, doing whatever is needed to succeed – ideas often instilled from a young age [Ref: The Conversation]. Former W-league football player Natasha Prior states that she felt pressure to return playing after several serious injuries, often given just a two-week grace period [Ref: ESPN]. Steve Thompson describes rugby professionals as ‘bits of meat on a conveyor belt’, exploited then tossed aside when deemed surplus [Ref: Guardian]. To protect sportsmen from the considerable risk of head injuries we must, it is suggested, change the aim of sports from winning to enjoyment at both the amateur and professional levels [Ref: Huffington Post]. Contact sports participants, it is argued, need adequate information about concussions, models of safe play must be enforced and, most importantly, athletes need to be encouraged not to play on in the face of injury and put their safety first [Ref: Guardian].
But critics of this approach counter that the very desire to ‘fight on’ is why contact sports are so valuable. Some state that this uncompromising, winning mentality is what instils sport with its absorbing dynamism, creating ‘operatic spectacles between individuals and teams as they strive and struggle for glory’ [Ref: Independent]. Professional boxers Chris Eubank senior and junior argue that the ‘warrior’ mentality to stay in the ring regardless of the punishment from an opponent is at the heart of boxing’s code; the ‘honour and integrity’ behind this mindset elevates contact sports to a higher plane and is an inherent part of its value: ‘You do not play boxing.’ [Ref: Guardian]
Furthermore, advocates of contact sports maintain that the benefits still vastly outweigh the risk, teaching participants important ideas about fitness, teamwork, how to manage physical contact and how to overcome fear, as well as offering increased confidence and a feeling of camaraderie [Ref: Telegraph]. In short, contact sports teach things more valuable than player safety. But those opposed to this outlook continue to argue that athletes cannot be trusted to make decisions on their own safety, as they will continually sacrifice themselves in pursuit of victory [Ref: Independent].
Updating the sport?
Some contact sports have massively improved their safeguards over the past few years. Recently, the Premier League has proposed allowing a permanent concussion substitution during matches [Ref: Sky Sports]. Former players, including England manager Gareth Southgate, comment on the advancement in medical treatment for such injuries since they were playing, although Southgate still believes that ‘football remains in the dark about the long-term risks of heading the ball and concussions sustained on the pitch’ [Ref: Guardian]. In response to this, the FA has rolled out the aforementioned trials in removing heading from the game at U12 level.
Furthermore, despite ruling out the outlawing of the bouncer, cricket authority the MCC has committed to providing more education to players and coaching on the dangers and the signs of concussion [Ref: Daily Mail].
However, other sports like boxing seem to keep quiet on the matter. Sydney boxer Davey Browne died after getting a blow to the face that caused a subdural hematoma in the twelfth round of a fight. However, an inquest has shown that he was badly concussed by the eleventh round, but told he was fit to continue by the ringside doctor [Ref: Guardian]. The desire to ‘shake an injury off’ probably led to a death that could have been prevented. As one commentator puts it, ‘while concussion is now shaking up professional football leagues and other contact sports around the world, combat sport continues to duck and weave away from it’ [Ref: Guardian].
So, what is the solution? Do we tear out the ‘soul of the game’ in the name of safety? Do these sports pose such a considerable danger that the only option is not to play at all? Or do we allow those athletes who choose to embark on these careers to take risks, and if we ‘don’t like it, stop watching’? Should we put safety first, or is there something more valuable to be learnt at the heart of contact sports?
It is crucial for debaters to have read the articles in this section, which provide essential information and arguments for and against the debate motion. Students will be expected to have additional evidence and examples derived from independent research, but they can expect to be criticised if they lack a basic familiarity with the issues raised in the essential reading.
Rugby is a game of contact, why should those who wish to play with the present laws not be allowed to do so?
Brian Moore Telegraph 21 December 2020
Banning heading in football would turn the Premier League into glorified five-a-side
Troy Deeney The Sun 28 November 2020
I was paralysed playing youth rugby – but a tackle ban is not the answer
Nathan Cubitt Guardian 9 March 2016
Is rugby too dangerous? Children need to be free to take risks
Gaby Hinsliff Guardian 4 March 2016
We chose this profession
Richard Sherman MMBQ 23 September 2013
Tackling in children’s rugby must be banned to curb dementia risks
Eric Anderson, Adam John White and Keith Parry The Conversation 11 December 2020
Steve Thompson: ‘I can’t remember winning the World Cup’
Andy Bull Guardian 8 December 2020
‘Winning at all costs’: The pursuit of success and the dangers that come with it
Samuel Lovett Independent 30 July 2019
The sports world knows concussion can kill. So why does no one talk about it?
Stephanie Convery Guardian 27 February 2020
Sports culture must change to reduce head injuries
Debra Houry Huffington Post 24 December 2015
Sport and dementia: ‘Something needs to happen now’
Jamie Doward Guardian 13 December 2020
Can rugby union continue as normal knowing it is causing brain injuries?
Michael Aylwin Guardian 9 December 2020
Playing rugby union may help to reduce health risks
Emma O’Neill The Times 29 October 2020
Why women are more at risk from concussion
David Robson BBC Sport 31 January 2020
Stopping kids heading the ball misses the goal
David Shaw BMJ 28 January 2020
Should we worry about footballers heading the ball?
Tom Chivers Unherd 23 October 2019
Banning the tackle in school rugby: Let’s put it into context.
Kass Gibson British Medical Journal Blog 30 January 2019
Few sports are doing enough to protect athletes from brain damage
The Economist 24 January 2019
Chris Eubank Sr and Jr: ‘You have to stay and take the beating’
Decca Aitkenhead Guardian 6 April 2016
AUDIO AND VIDEO
‘Rugby head injury assessment protocol is dangerous’
BBC Radio Five Live
It is not essential for students to read the following articles to do well, but they provide important context and further arguments.
A bouncer ban would ruin the game of cricket
John Snow Daily Mail 23 January 2021
Football’s links with dementia are growing clearer, but not playing carries its own risks
Tom Chivers inews 19 June 2022
Limiting contact in practice may be one of the best ways to reduce head injuries in youth football, study finds
Jen Christensen CNN health 14 October 2022
How to Recognize and Treat Concussions in Kids
Katie Chen Stanford Medicine 7 November 2022
Players with early-onset dementia to issue proceedings against rugby authorities
Sky Sports 25July 2022
Case against rugby union governing bodies on dementia destined for courts
Guardian 25 July 2022
FA to trial removal of heading in U12 football
The FA 18 July 2022
Allyson Pollock and Graham Kirkwood: Tackle and scrum should be banned in school rugby
Allyson M Pollock and Graham Kirkwood the bmj opinion 25 September 2017
Deliberate Heading Trial
International Football Association Board DOA: 15 November 2022
Rugby only dies if we continue to ignore the facts
Owen Slot The Times 15 January 2021
Schools level tackle ban call by English university academics hasn’t gone down well online
Josh Raisey Rugby Pass 18 December 2020
England coach Eddie Jones calls for ban on tackling above the hip in kids rugby
Dan Salisbury-Jones ITV News 14 December 2020
Rugby players’ claim for brain injury has ‘less than 50/50’ chance, say experts
Sean Ingle Guardian 12 December 2020
‘My personality has changed’: readers on rugby, head injuries and dementia
Various authors Guardian 11 December 2020
England coach Eddie Jones says rugby learned from past and is safe for players
Luke McLaughlin Guardian 10 December 2020
Concussions forced me to quit professional rugby – now I’m worried about my future
Katherine Merchant Guardian 9 December 2020
The Guardian view on rugby and brain injury: an existential crisis
Editorial Guardian 9 December 2020
Football without headers is unthinkable – or is it?
Adrian Chiles Guardian 8 December 2020
The frightening reality of women’s concussions – a personal story
Brittany Mitchell ESPN 3 December 2020
Winning at all costs – how abuse in sport has become normalised
Emma Kavanagh, Adi Adams, Andrew Adams The Conversation 16 July 2020
Can heading a football lead to dementia? The evidence is growing
Hannah Devlin Guardian 13 January 2020
The knockout blow – the risk of brain injury in mixed martial arts
Hasan Chowdhury New Statesman 16 July 2016
History shows ‘smarter’ football is no match for concussion
Jack Moore Guardian 30 June 2016
Football’s silent shame: Dementia ‘conspiracy’ is a stain on the game
Jeremy Wilson Telegraph 30 May 2016
Playing through pain is part of rugby’s culture, but where’s the line?
John Daniell Guardian 9 May 2016
The great rugby union debate: should tackling be banned at school level?
Professor Eric Anderson and Dr Andrew Murray Guardian 2 March 2016
Schools and hard knocks
Economist 5 March 2016
Bang to rights
Economist 5 March 2016
We can tackle AND stay safe… change rules to protect children but don’t ban contact
Clive Woodward Daily Mail 2 March 2016
Opinion: The harsh reality of knockouts, concussions and fighter health
Michael Hutchinson SB Nation 10 January 2016
World Rugby isn’t doing enough to protect young players from head injuries
Allyson Pollock Guardian 21 September 2015
Why former 49er Chris Borland is the most dangerous man in football
Steve Fainaru & Mark Fainaru-Wada ESPN 20 August 2015
‘School rugby brings more benefits than risks’
Telegraph 26 August 2014
IN THE NEWS
Cricket’s lawmakers MCC decide against banning bouncer after 18-month review into the sport’s rules
Richard Gibson Daily Mail 4 March 2022
Ex-All Black Carl Hayman, 41, joins lawsuit after early-onset dementia diagnosis
Tom Sunderland The Mirror 3 November 2021
FA to trial banning deliberate heading by children under 12 in England
Guardian 18 July 2022
Tackling Bans In Junior Rugby Proposed After Researchers Conclude It Could Lead To Brain Damage
Jayden Collins SPORTbible 29 July 2022
Football still ‘in the dark’ about long-term risk of heading ball, says Southgate
Louise Taylor Guardian 5 January 2021
Ryan Mason: Heading in football might not exist in 10-15 years
Alastair McGowan BBC 24 December 2020
Calls for tackling ban in school rugby over concerns of impact
Laura Scott BBC 18 December 2020
Nobby Stiles’ wife backs ban on children heading footballs amid dementia concerns
Simon Collings Evening Standard 16 December 2020
Academics call on government to ban contact rugby in schools
Dan Salisbury-Jones ITV News 18 December 2020
Premier League set to discuss implementing concussion replacements and reintroducing five substitutes
Sky Sports 15 December 2020
Football and rugby facing flood of claims over head injuries warning
Jamie Doward Guardian 13 December 2020
Dementia link leads to calls for collision rugby to be banned in schools
Matthew Weaver Guardian 10 December 2020
Steve Thompson in group of ex-rugby union internationals to sue for brain damage
Chris McLaughlin BBC 8 December 2020
Wayne Rooney in favour of investigating links between heading and dementia
Paul Wilson Guardian 19 November 2020